Author Guidelines

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Author Guidelines

General Information

Liver Transplantation publishes original clinical and laboratory-based research related to the fields of liver transplantation and liver surgery in both humans and experimental models.

The journal publishes only in English. Authors lacking facility with English syntax should seek the appropriate editorial assistance prior to submitting their manuscript. Material requiring major editorial work might be returned without peer- review.

To submit your manuscript electronically and for complete instructions on how to do so, go to . The journal utilizes an anonymous peer-review process to evaluate manuscripts for publication. With respect to the revision and resubmission of manuscripts, it is the journal's general policy to allow a single resubmission only, which should be received within one month from the time of receipt of the initial review letter. In general, a revised manuscript returned one month or more after request will be handled as new. If needed, please email your extension request to

Copyright of all material published in Liver Transplantation is vested in the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. In accordance with the Copyright Act of 1976, all manuscripts must be accompanied by a Copyright Assignment form (Author's Agreement form) signed by all authors. Statements and opinions expressed in the articles and communications in Liver Transplantation are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the Editor(s) or publisher, and the Editor and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material. Neither the Editor(s) nor the publisher guarantees, warrants, or endorses any product or service advertised in the journal, nor do they guarantee any claim made by the manufacturer of such product or service.

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

For RCUK and Wellcome Trust authors click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license:

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

Cover Letter

Manuscripts should be submitted with a cover letter to:

Editor in Chief, Liver Transplantation
1001 North Fairfax Street, Ste. 400
Alexandria, VA 22314-1503
Telephone: 703-299-9766
Fax: 703-299-9766

The corresponding author must give written assurance that neither the submitted material nor portions thereof have been published previously or are under consideration for publication elsewhere. Any material that could constitute prior or concurrent publication of similar data by any one of the authors should be submitted with the manuscript. Such material includes symposium proceedings, book chapters, invited papers, and the like.

Authors may suggest the names of reviewers whose expertise qualifies them to review the work. Any reviewers the authors wish to exclude may be listed along with the reason for exclusion. While all suggestions will be considered, the final choice of reviewers rests with the Editor or responsible Associate Editor.

All contributing authors are required to submit a separate, signed author agreement to confirm their authorship and approval. It is assumed, however, that the corresponding author speaks for his or her co-authors and certifies that all listed authors participated meaningfully in the study and that they have seen and approved the final manuscript. The letter should describe any commercial affiliation or consultancy of an author that could be construed as a conflict of interest with respect to the submitted data. If the Editor finds that such activities raise the appearance of a conflict, he may recommend disclosure in a footnote. Otherwise, the information will remain confidential.

Organization of the Manuscript

Manuscripts describing original research consist of (in this order) a title page, a footnote page, an abstract, an introductory statement (without heading), a description of experimental procedures or methods, the results, a discussion and, on separate pages, a list of references, figure legends, and tables. Authors have the option of combining the results and discussion and are encouraged to do so for short manuscripts.

For Original Manuscripts, must be no longer than 5,000 words (including references), abstract of 275 words, no more than 50 references and a title with no more than 120 characters (excluding spaces). Manuscripts that are redundant or contain extraneous material will be returned for shortening, even if otherwise acceptable. See Submission elements and Manuscript Organization below.

Editorials are invited by the Editors and should be no longer than 1,500 words (including references).

Reviews should not be longer than 5,000 words (including references), The references list not to be exhaustive. While most reviews are invited by the Editors, authors interested in contributing reviews are requested to first contact the Editorial Office ( with an outline of proposed article.

Letters from the Frontline is devoted to short, rapid communication of innovative clinical techniques and surgical problems. As the field of liver transplantation continues to evolve rapidly, clinical surgeons need to incorporate novel approaches to the complex problems which we face in the OR. Letters from the Frontline will provide the opportunity for our community to present innovative solutions or pose difficult technical questions to the community at large. Communications to this section need to be addressed in the form of a letter to the editor. They may include one or two illustrations or images, a limit of 5 references, and no more than 1,500 words. We encourage you to submit small series or even single cases which illustrate your innovations or solutions.

Letters to the Editor may be subjected to peer-review and undergo editing for clarity and brevity, and should be no longer than 500 words (including references) and include no more than 10 references and one figure. The title must match the one published in Liver Transplantation that originated this letter.

Special Articles are on a variety of topics and may include AASLD practice guidelines, in-depth scientific reviews, meeting reports, and comments on social policy. It's recommended that the length of each article is kept within the 5,000 words (including references) but this may be decided by the Editor on a case-by-case basis.

Submission Elements

Title page

Provide a concise title that (no more than 120 characters, not including spaces between words), in the case of work with experimental animals, indicates the species used. List the full names of the author(s). Indicate the institutional affiliation. In a multi-authored work involving more than a single institution, indicate individual affiliation by means of a superscript Arabic number. Indicate a change of address similarly. Provide a list of 5 key words that do not appear in the title itself.

Footnote Page

The footnotes should include the following: 1. An alphabetical list of all abbreviations used in the article (including tables and figures) and their definitions (see the Abbreviations section later in these instructions for more details); 2. Grants and financial support (this should not be included in the acknowledgments); 3. Any conflicts of interest; and 4. The complete mailing address for the correspondence author along with the author's telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address, and academic degree.


In 275 words or less, state the rationale for the study, its results, and conclusions in terms accessible to the general reader. Nonstandard abbreviations, references, or footnotes should not be used. The last section should start with “Conclusion:”


Provide the minimum background information that will orient the general reader. Do not engage in a literature review.

Experimental Procedures

Provide a level of detail such that another investigator could repeat the work; for methods that are used without significant modification, citation of the original work will suffice.

Policy on organs from executed prisoners. Liver Transplantation will not accept manuscripts whose data derives from transplants involving organs obtained from executed prisoners. Manuscripts writing about this practice (e.g. an editorial or a report recounting the secondary consequences of this practice) may be considered at the discretion of the Editorial Board, but require a written appeal to the Board prior to submission of the manuscript. A sentence must be included within Experimental Procedures stating that no organs from executed prisoners were used.

Human subjects. For reports of research using human subjects, provide assurance that the study protocol conformed to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki as reflected in a priori approval or exemption by the appropriate institutional review committee. Individual patients should be referred to by number, not by initials.

If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.

Animal experimentation. In studies involving animal experimentation, provide assurance that all animals received humane care according to the criteria outlined in the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" prepared by the National Academy of Sciences and published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH publication 86-23 revised 1985).

When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

Genetic sequence data. In papers reporting a novel DNA or amino acid sequence, verify that the data have been or will be submitted either to GenBank or EMBL, and provide the accession number. This information need not accompany the initially submitted manuscript but must be available for inclusion in the final publication. Accession numbers appear as footnotes to the text or in the relevant figure legend. It is understood that authors publishing in Liver Transplantation will make cloned DNA, hybridomas, mutant animals, and other resources available to qualified investigators..

Statistics. Identify and provide references for the statistical methods used. The legends of figures and tables should specify the number of observations and whether estimates of variance are standard deviations or standard errors.

Results from regression models should include the point estimate (hazard ratio, relative risk, odds ratio) in addition to confidence interval and/or p-value. When reporting results from any regression models, the goodness- of-fit measures should be reported. Do not report odds ratios (exponentiated coefficients of logistic regression models) as relative risks. For example, if the odds ratio is 3.0, it is incorrect to refer to this as ‘‘threefold increased risk’’ or ‘‘three times the risk.’’’

When data are not normally distributed, report median and inter-quartile range rather than mean and standard deviation. Consideration should be given to the purpose of the analysis. In certain situations, especially those involving non-normally distributed data, it may be desirable to have a more extensive understanding of the distribution, using histograms, 5th/95th percentile values, and/or min and max. The choice of presentation of descriptive data should reflect the underlying meaning that the author is intending to convey to the reader.

Studies of incomplete datasets should report the degree of missingness for each variable of interest, when the proportion of missing data exceeds 5%. A sample statement might be ‘‘the level of missingness was 5% for all variables used in regression models with the exception of xx, which was missing in 14% of cases.’’ For models that incorporate variables with missing values, there should be an indication of how missingness was handled (e.g., case exclusion, missingness indicators, imputation).

Specify the statistical software used, including the version and manufacturer.

Rounding. Numbers should be rounded according to the following excerpt from AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed. (p 851): ‘‘The digits to the right of the last significant digit are rounded up or down. If the digit to the right of the last significant digit is less than 5, the last significant digit is not changed. If the digit is greater than 5, the last significant digit is rounded up to the next higher digit. (For example, 47.746 years is rounded to 47.7 years and 47.763 years is rounded to 47.8 years.) If the digit immediately to the right of the last significant digit is 5, with either no digits or all zeros after the 5, the last significant digit is rounded up if it is odd and not changed if it is even. (For example, 47.7500 would become 47.8; 47.65 would become 47.6.) If the digit to the right of the last significant digit is 5 followed by any number other than 0, the last significant digit is rounded up (47.6501 would become 47.7).’’

P Values. P values should be expressed according to the following excerpt from AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed. (pp 851-852): ‘‘P values should be expressed to 2 digits to the right of the decimal point (regardless of whether the P value is significant), unless P .01, in which case the P value should be expressed to 3 digits to the right of the decimal point. (One exception to this rule is when rounding P from 3 digits to 2 digits would result in P appearing nonsignificant, such as P ¼ .046. In this case, expressing the P value to 3 placesmay be preferred by the author. The same holds true for rounding confidence intervals that are significant before rounding but nonsignificant after rounding.) The smallest P value that should be expressed is P .001, since additional zeros do not convey useful information. Very large and very small P values should always be expressed as P > .99 and P 0.001 respectively.’’ Note that unlike AMA Manual of Style, Liver Transplantation includes a zero before the decimal point.

Clinical Trials

Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines (JAMA 2001;285: 1987-1991 or Authors must provide the CONSORT checklist (found at, under Instructions and Forms) with a diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. Manuscripts that fail to comply with the CONSORT guidelines or do not include the CONSORT checklist at the time of submission will not be reviewed for publication.

All clinical trials should be registered in order to be published in Liver Transplantation.


Present the major findings of the study in graphic form if practicable. Do not illustrate minor details if their message is conveyed adequately by simple descriptive text. Mention all tables and figures.


In the discussion, present concisely the implications of the new findings for the field as a whole, minimizing reiteration of the results, avoiding repetition of material in the introduction, and keeping a close focus on the specific topic of the paper.


Acknowledge personal assistance and providers of special reagents. Note that grant and other financial support is listed on the footnote page, not here.


References should be numbered in the order cited as Arabic numerals in parentheses on the line. Only literature that is published or in press (with the name of the publication known) may be numbered and listed; abstracts and letters to the editor may be cited, but they must be less than 3 years old and identified as such. Other material (manuscript submitted, unpublished data, personal communication, and the like) is referred to only in the text, in parentheses, as in the following example: (Chercheur X, unpublished data). If the owner of the unpublished data or personal communication is not an author or coauthor of the manuscript under review, a signed statement is required verifying the accuracy of the attributed information and agreement to its publication. Simply type references numbers in parentheses within the text and type out the reference list as normal text at the end of the manuscript.

The style for references and journal abbreviations are those of the Index Medicus. List all authors up to seven, using six and et al. when the number is greater than seven.

Articles in journals:
Crawley AC, Brooks DA, Muller VJ, Petersen BA, Isaac EL, Biekicki J, et al. Enzyme replacement therapy in feline model of the Matroteaux-Lamy syndrome. J Clin Invest 1996;97:1864-1873.

Watson JD. The Double Helix. New York: Atheneum; 1968:1-6.

Book chapters:
Hofmann AF: The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in health and disease. In: Sleisinger MH, Fordtran JS, eds. Gastrointestinal Disease. Volume 1. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1993: 127-150.

Abstract or article in a supplement:
Klin M, Kaplowitz N. Differential susceptibility of hepatocytes to TNF-induced apoptosis vs necrosis [abstract]. Hepatology 1998;28(suppl):310A.

Web site
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis C information for health professionals. Accessed August 2011.


Direct quotations, tables, or illustrations taken from copyrighted material must be accompanied by written permission for their use from the publisher and the original author. The permission is presented as a footnote or addition to the legend and must provide complete information as to source. Photographs of identifiable persons must be accompanied by a signed release that indicates informed consent.


Standard abbreviations not requiring definition are those listed in the American Medical Association Manual of Style. Do not abbreviate otherwise unless a term is used more than five times in a paper. In this case, the abbreviation should be spelled out, in parentheses, in its first use in the text and also listed on the foonote page (see previous page). Abbreviations used in figures or tables should be defined in the legend. Express temperatures as degrees Celsius and other measurements in SI units.

Drug Names

Use generic names. The proprietary name may be mentioned in parentheses.


Prepare tables on individual sheets of paper (word documents), double-spaced, and numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in the order of their appearance in the text. Do not duplicate material presented in a figure.

Figure Legends

Number the figures with Arabic numerals in the order mentioned in the text. Provide a title (this should not appear on the figure itself) and sufficient explanation to render the figure intelligible without reference to the text. Explain all abbreviations and symbols. For any copyrighted material, indicate that permission has been obtained (see Permissions, above). Figure legends should be typed consecutively on a separate sheet of paper.


All figures submitted for review need to be in TIFF (Tagged Image File Format), EPS (Encapsulated Post-Script) format or .PPT (Power Point File).

All figures (black and white or color) need to have a resolution of at least 300 DPI (dots per inch) at full size with no compression. Color figures should be in RGB color mode and black and white figures should be set to Grayscale color mode.

We recommend Adobe Photoshop for generating pixel-based graphics and either Adobe Illustrator or Macromedia’s Freehand for generating vector-based graphics. Black and white (B/W) line art is either pixel based (typically generated by scanning the image) or vector based (generated using a drawing program such as Freehand or Illustrator). Pixel-based artwork should be supplied in TIFF format and at a resolution of not less than 300 dots per square inch (dpi). Vector-based artwork should be supplied as EPS files. B/W halftones should be supplied in TIFF format. The halftone should be provided at the proper resolution. The finished resolution should be at least 300 dpi. Note that these file formats are not acceptable for printing: JPG, GIF, ONG, PCX, PNG, XBM, PDF, MS Word, Rar, and Excel. We recommend creating your graphics in Photoshop, Illustrator, or Freehand and importing them into your page applications as TIFFs with all fonts included. Do not scan figures as JPEGs and convert to TIFFs.

To ensure that your digital graphics are suitable for print purposes, please go to Rapid Inspector at This free, stand-alone software application will help you to inspect and verify illustrations right on your computer.

Authors are charged for color figures, the cost being $500 for each page (whole or partial). Figures submitted in color for review will be published in color.
The publisher will send an invoice for color charges directly to the corresponding author.

Cover Photograph
Authors with accepted manuscripts may submit artwork for consideration for the cover via email to The material may be different from the figures used in the article but should represent its content. Single slides or color photographs are preferred, and multiple examples may be submitted. Individual photographs should be trimmed to 21 × 28 cm (width × height) for production as is, and they should be accompanied by an one to two-sentence caption and a short paragraph legend. Authors are not charged for a cover photograph.

Preprint Servers
Liver Transplantation will consider for review articles previously available as preprints on non-commercial servers such as ArXiv, bioRxiv, etc. Authors may also post the submitted version of their manuscript to non-commercial servers at any time. Authors are requested to update any pre-publication versions with a link to the final published article. 

Data Policies
Liver Transplantation encourages authors to share the data and other artifacts supporting the results in the paper by archiving it in an appropriate public repository. Authors should include a data accessibility statement, including a link to the repository they have used, in order that this statement can be published alongside their paper. The journal requires that all authors cite data in the same way as article, book, and web citations in their reference list. We recommend the format proposed by the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles:  Authors; Year; Dataset title; Data repository or archive; Version (if any); Persistent identifier (e.g. DOI).

Conflict of Interest

Please disclose all financial arrangements within the past two years, including consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent-licensing agreements, research support, major honoraria, etc. you have with a company whose product figures prominently in the manuscript you are submitting, sending a letter to the editor, or providing an editorial. Please provide the same information for similar relationships with a company making a competing product to that which is featured in the manuscript. If the Editor finds that such activities raise the appearance of a conflict, he may recommend disclosure in a footnote. Otherwise, the information will remain confidential.

Supplement Policies for Liver Transplantation

Supplements must be

  • of importance to Liver Transplantation subscribers and related to the journal's academic and educational mission.
  • on a significant and timely topic.
  • on a field of inquiry and not focused on a single product.
  • from symposia that are organized by an independent body of professionals in which the funding organization does not have a controlling voice.
  • planned well in advance if they are from a conference or symposium so that the manuscripts will be available either at the time of the meeting or shortly thereafter.

Supplements will be published only if there is scientific or education logic for combining papers in one publication rather than publishing them separately.

All proposals for a supplement to Liver Transplantation must be submitted to the Editorial Office via email at

Each supplement must have a Guest Editor who is an expert in the designated topic. The Guest Editor accepts responsibility for the overall quality and integrity of the supplement.

The Editors of Liver Transplantation and the Guest Editor retain the right to determine whether any individual article in a supplement submitted for publication requires additional peer review. For disputed manuscripts, the Editors retain authority to determine whether the final manuscript will be published.

Final acceptance of a supplement is based on review of the submitted manuscripts.

Individual authors are responsible for the content of their own contributions and for editing those contributions.

Instructions regarding manuscript submission can be found on the Liver Transplantation Web site at under "Instructions and Forms."

Articles published in a supplement are subject to the same copyright regulations that apply to articles published in regular issues of Liver Transplantation.

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